National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Scientific Goals and Missions - RISE Project


The RISE project participates in and contributes to planetary exploration missions for the study of internal structures and evolution of solar system bodies as a hub for Japanese planetary science community, aiming to elucidate the formation of habitable environment on the Earth and possibly planets in other solar systems.


The missions of this project are:

  1. to contribute to studying observation operation in the proximity of Phobos, orbit determination, ground data processing, and data analysis method by participating in Geodesy Science Strategy Team (GSST) of Martian Moons eXploration (MMX) mission of JAXA/ISAS based on the heritage of lunar and planetary geodesy in Kaguya and Hayabusa2;
  2. to provide the scientific community with Hayabusa2 data acquired by laser altimeter for investigation of surface evolution of the asteroid, Ryugu, support the extended mission (Hayabusa2#), and develop relevant application techniques; and
  3. to support the development and tests of receiver optics of Ganymede laser altimeter in Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission of ESA under the leadership of JAXA/ISAS, and to help Japanese planetary science community participating in International Space Exploration (ISE) of NASA, ESA, JAXA and other space agencies and collaboration of industry, government, and academia, with the first priority on Hayabusa2 and MMX.

Primary Scientific Goals

The primary scientific goals of this project are:

  1. to contribute to revealing the origin of Martian moons through providing geodetic products regarding spacecraft orbit dynamics and Phobos shape and constraining the internal structure by its shape, gravity, and rotation;
  2. to elucidate shape transition caused by internal deformation and surface regolith mobility of the asteroid, Ryugu, and targets of Hayabusa2#; and
  3. to develop scientific research on crustal tectonics of icy satellites, the shallow subsurface structure of the Moon, and the hydrosphere on Mars toward future science observations in JUICE and ISE.

Target Date

End of March 2026